Monday, February 25, 2013
“Little is written about William Carey and his contribution to Indian agriculture and horticulture” .This is the sentiment of the architects of William Carey University, Meghalaya and is expressed in their web page titled Our Vision , where they acknowledge the ‘numerous contributions’ of William Carey .(www.wcu.co.in/Vision.htm).
Rev. Dr. William Carey’s contribution towards Modernising Indian Agriculture and Horticultre will have to be ‘duly acknowledged’ and then critically examined. His thoughts and ideas forms the basis of modern Indian Agricultural Universities and Vet nary Colleges. And if such ideas are allowed to continue and have a free reign, sufficient availability of non-toxic food (food-security) for the Indian population will be AT RISK. Are’nt we already experiencing the consequences of imitating STUPID Western concepts in food production and distribution, which is reflected in high food prices ?
Carey’s Depreciating View about Indian ingenuity and Livestock.
In his address to the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, (200 yrs back,), Rev. William Carey made the following observations about Indian livestock “ No attempt to improve Stock, appears ever to have taken place in India, but every thing has been left to nature; there is however every reason to think that the breed of Horses, Cows, Sheep, Goats, Swine, and every other useful animal, might be improved as effectually as it has been in other countries, were proper (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/aghort/viii.jpg) means employed to accomplish the end. The quantity of milk in cows might undoubtedly be increased, the quality of wool might be improved, a stronger and more useful race of cattle both for draught and burden might be gradually introduced, and in short every thing might be expected from persevering attempts to improve those animals which come under the denomination of stock, whether intended for Labour, the Dairy, or of Food. This then would form a proper object to call forth the exertions of an Agricultural Society.”
The ideas brought to Indian shores by men like Carey over the last 200 years, has inflicted great damage and suffering to ordinary Indians. The local varieties (nadan) of rice has altogether disappeared from our food basket. There used to more than 3500 species of rice in India.Such rice had taste and also had medicinal /health reinstating values, guaranteeing public health. Maybe the life-style disease ‘diabetics’ would not have assumed epidemic proportions as of now, in the face of which public health authorities are helpless.
Coming back to livestock issues, the MILK of indigenous(INDIAN ) breed of cows had medicinal values. And many indigenous breeds are on the verge of extinction. In Kerala, Vechur Cow and Kasargod Dwarf are examples. Pursual of modern ideas in agriculture with an eye on plentiful yield & profits lead to neglect of traditional wisdom and practices. Moderns gave weightage to quantity over quality. In the span of just 200 years, it has become incumbent on us to retrace our steps and pattern our life as per ancient Indian wisdom. Though Carey may have had good intentions regarding the welfare of heathens, ultimately all his actions are proving to be injurious to the very people, whom he tried to 'SAVE". (Such are the nuances of KARMA !!)
Kindly go through the following links which are a few(but realiable) among the numerous ones available on the web. Then all natives of this land will realize what they have lost.
(42 comments for this article, too many to ready fully)
http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/sainath/article2775282.ece ( 40 comments, came across some negative comments about THE PERSON featured in this news item)
Sunday, February 24, 2013
Many well-meaning citizens of this country lamented the loss of two days work, and the consequent productivity loss to the nation, due to the two day general strike called for by the trade unions.
Similar concerns were expressed by another influential Protestant Missionary, Rev. Claudius Buchanan,(1766-1815), and friend of Rev. William Carey, in 1805 while serving as Vice Provost at Fort William in Kolkatta. Rev.Buchanan ‘s observations & intentions towards Hindioos are very clear in his essay titled, “Memoir of the Expediency of an Ecclesiastical Establishment for British India; both as a Means of Perpetuating the Christian Religion among our own Countrymen; and as a Foundation for the Ultimate Civilization of Natives.” In the essay , Buchanan sets forth a rationale for an Anglican Establishment in India as follows :- Let us first establish our own religion among ourselves, and our Asiatic subjects will soon benefit by it. When once our national church shall have been confirmed in India,the members of that church will be the best qualified to advise the state as to the means by which, from time to time, the civilization of the natives may be promoted.” (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/buchanan2/est.htm) In the Contents of the essay listed, Part II deals with Civilization of the natives, in which Chapter V is titled “The numerous holidays of the natives an impediment to their civilization.”
Excerpts from Chapter V.
“1.Another obstacle to the improvement of the natives is the great number of their holidays. These holydays embody their superstition.......
2. In the Hindoo calendar there are upwards of an hundred holydays; and of these government recognises officially a certain number........During those Hindoo holydays which are officially recognised, the public offices are shut up, on account of the festival (as it is termed) of Doora Puja, of (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/buchanan2/38.jpg) Churruck Puja, of Rutt Jattra, or of some other. But great detriment to the public service arising from the frequent recurrence of these Saturnalia, govt. Resolved some years ago to reduce the number, which was done accordingly......
3. (Footnote + on page 39) No people require fewer days of rest than the Hindoos; for they know nothing of the corporal exertion and fatigue from labour, which in other countries render regular repose so grateful to the body and spirits. ---In what other country would it be considered a means of promoting the happiness of the common people, to grant them so great a portion of the year to spend in idleness and dissipation ? The indulgence operates here as it would in any other country; it encourages extavagence, licentious habits, and neglect of business among themselves; and it very seriously impedes the business of the state, and deranges commercial negotiation.” (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/buchanan2/39.jpg)
Till 1700, or till the 1700’s, India had contributed 24.44% of the World GDP. In the same period, Protestant Britain’s share is only 2.88%. (See the table above). The majority ‘idle’ and ‘licentious’ Hindoos, and the minority ‘Musalmans’ between themselves were able to produce 24.44% of World GDP. And the gentlemen from England had landed here to buy , the goods and other supplies produced by this’uncivilized natives’.
Surely The Hindu Approach Towards Work (KARMA) WAS Optimal, and that is the prescription for the modern world to save itself from disaster!!!!
Saturday, February 23, 2013
Rev.William Carey,(1761-1834) , Father of Modern Missions, had given an extensive picture “On the State of Agriculture, in the District of Dina’jpur”. This was published by the ASIATIC SOCIETY in 1808. (www.wmcarey.edu/carey/asiatic-researches/dinajpur/dinajpur.pdf)
Carey is the founder of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. This Society, the first of its kind in India was founded in 1820. In India, a University in Meghalaya is named after him. In addition to this there are nine other institutions in the world named after him. Lot of encomiums are heaped on this ‘English gentleman’, at home(India) and abroad.
Carey had meticulously described about the agricultural practices in Bengal. Which includes inter-cropping (see page 10, middle of para 3) & crop rotation,(see page 16, para 2), though later in his Address to the Agricultural and Horticultural society, he asserts that Indian farmers never knew of crop rotation.
On two counts this reportage from Carey, should engage our special attention.
(1) In this meticulous report, which even includes some detailed sketches towards the end, PESTS or PEST ATTACKS on Crops are NOT mentioned. It can mean that, traditional agricultural practices in India almost PREVENTED the manifestation and multiplication of pests. Only after the introduction of hybrid varieties, we became aware of intensified pest attacks.
(2) The working style or the work ethic(KARMA) and worldview of Indian farmers is looked down upon by Carey. He reports “At present the poverty, prejudices, and indolence of the natives strongly operate against improvements in agriculture. Could an adequate remedy be found for these evils, many other things might be cultivated with great advantage.” (p.21, para 2) Carey’s stinging observation about Indian farmers and their LOW output (due to laziness) is at variance from the figures compiled from this period, which proves Carey to be wrong in his judgement.
Two work ethics mutually opposed to each other are operating here -INDIAN vis-a –vis the PROTESTANT WORK ETHIC. Figures published after Carey’s death , in 1878 shows that contrasted to 31 serious famines in 120 years of British rule , there were only seventeen recorded famines in the entire previous two millennia (2000 yrs).(Source : C. Walford, “The Famines of the World: Past and Present,” Journal of the Statistical Society 41:13 (1878) pp 434-42). Thus Indian Work Ethic was replaced by the Protestant One, which had caused/and is causing undue sufferings for all !!!!
Excessive meddling with nature and trying to control it , for satiating the wants & greed had (re-) opened the Pandora’s box, and pests are one of the evils coming out of it. The West does not know the nuances of KARMA !!!
Friday, February 22, 2013
The difference between the traditional and the other varieties was infinite, he said. The traditional varieties were not only tasty but also contained medicinal properties, he added.
Mr. Nammalwar contended that the dependence on the chemical fertilizers had resulted in the microbial population getting reduced. The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University had found that the traditional varieties had better protein content than the other varieties. For the traditional varieties, there was no necessity to sink deep borewells and this ultimately reduced power consumption also, he pointed out.
The Hindu : NATIONAL / TAMIL NADU : Traditional varieties can tolerate drought: scientist
Please note that there is a sentence in this reprot which says that agriculture is "location-specific."
“The reason is that all of them are consistently using + Panchagavya for their crops. Panchagavya can be easily prepared by the farmer. Cow dung and urine are the main inputs required for this. We have trained hundreds of farmers in this area over the last several years in making it for their own use,” he said.
The Hindu : Today's Paper / NATIONAL : A panacea for farmers of water-starved Tirunelveli
The Hindu : Today's Paper / NATIONAL : A panacea for farmers of water-starved Tirunelveli
“Though, during the start of the green revolution fertilizers and pesticides led to high yields in hybrid crops, later on it led to serious issues like development of insect resistant, resurgence and residual problems.
“Natural and non pesticidal methods for controlling pests have been in place since time immemorial. But sadly the present generation of farmers has either forgotten their efficiency or are not prepared to accept them,” says Dr. Alagesan.
The Hindu : FEATURES / SCI-TECH & AGRI : Fermented castor solution traps pests of sugarcane, groundnut
This is another example of Tradition vs Modernity (Tyranny)
“Now, many farmers in the district are showing interest in traditional rice cultivation, thanks to the various afflictions suffered by the hybrid varieties recently. We are giving them seeds from our gene bank.”
The Hindu : FEATURES / SUNDAY MAGAZINE : The rice is right
These links to reportage in The Hindu Newspaper are necessary to the continuity of this blog.
Thursday, February 21, 2013
Looking up my latest postings (also in Face Book) , you all may be wondering about my newfound fondness for agriculture. There is a possibility that I carry such ‘vasanas’ from previous births . Or to satisfy moderns, such tendencies, potential may exist in my ‘genes’.
Agriculture is considered to be a basic human activity. It results in the optimal way of getting food from nature, sustaining populations throughout the year. (at least for tropical countries).
I was trying to analyze such a basic activity as agriculture, by bringing it under the lens (umbrella) called KARMA. We are sitting over a pile of ancient wisdom, which also contains ‘The Law of Karma’, which clearly states that the range of human activities is limited. Or stating in a brusque manner, "The Law of Karma" limits our activities. I am reminded of a sentence from a speech of Gandhiji , given at Univ. College Tvm on 17th Sept. 1927 “ You will at once then see that nine-tenths of the activities that are going on throughout the world and which are engrossing our attention would fall into disuse.”
Kerala’s experience in agriculture, commercial plantation and Green Revolution in the past just 60 years, drives home the effect of The Law of Karma. As we are wakefully experiencing, Nature has imposed a limit on our unbridled pursuit of productivity and profits. If you had followed my postings , starting with Shi Subash Palekar (The lies we learn at College), a host of modern activities connected with ‘agriculture industry’ is not at all necessary and can be discarded. Starting with the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides, tractors, other agricultural machinery etc , we can also dispense with Agricultural Universities. If we have to have peaceful co-existence with nature, each other and other beings, these modern institutions and the products and services they offer has to be re-considered.
Finally we are forced to draw the conclusion,that pre-modern people had a more superior & emotionally stable intellect than our own. They knew how to sustain themselves with minimum exertion and minimal interference with nature.
“The Board had taken a long and hard look at questions of loss of bio-diversity to rubber plantations and might, for the first time, recommend planters to allow the growth of weeds, shrubs and medicinal plants along with rubber trees, Rubber Board sources said.”
The Hindu : Business News : Rubber Board's bio-diversity initiative
COMMERCIAL PLANTATIONS SERVED AS THE ENGINE FOR THE FLOURISHING SLAVE TRADE !!!!!!
Farmers involved in commercial production of crops like tea, coffee and rubber have been using pesticides such as DDT, after these crops were introduced during the British rule.
“Expansion of commercial plantations in Western Ghats has led to fragmentation of forest, soil erosion, degradation of river ecosystems and toxic contamination of the environment,” the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel report said.The report has been prepared by a panel headed by Madhav Gadgil. It was submitted to the Ministry in August last year."
The Hindu : Sci-Tech / Environment : Expert panel for curtailing commercial plantations in Western Ghats
WE HAD BEEN EXPORTING SPICES TO EUROPE & ARABIA WITHOUT RESORTING TO PLANTING ON A COMMERCIAL SCALE !!!!!
Wednesday, February 20, 2013
Kerala/Malabar Coast- Description by Bartolomeu Dias (1451-1500)
“Having kept as close to the land as possible, the whole coast of Malabar appeared before us in the form of a green amphitheatre. At one time we discovered a district entirely covered with cocoa-nut-trees; and immediately after, a river winding through a delightful vale, at the bottom of which discharged itself into the sea. In one place appeared a multitude of people employed in fishing; in another, a snow-white church bursting forth to the view from amidst the thick-leaved trees. While we were enjoying these delightful scenes with the early morning, a gentle breeze, which blew from the shore, perfumed the air around us with the agreeable smell wafted from the cardamom, pepper, beetel and other aromatic herbs and plants” -Bartolomeo, p.425
Dias was a Portugese Explorer. The last sentence in the above paragraph is quite interesting.
The question I wish to pose is, how could Kerala , say approximately 250 years before our birth could have supplied a large continent like Europe,(and also Arabia) with a variety of spices.?? On a commercial scale ? This was at a time when there were NO commercial plantations (similar to the one introduced by European planters) in Kerala.
And the wealth of Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple indicates that we had a TRADE SURPLUS.
It seems, the people of this land had 'good-life' with minimal work and that they could maintain a surplus. Hard-work is a modern canard.
Tuesday, February 19, 2013
Of late one gets the feeling that sexual violence and offences against women and children are on the rise. In the absence of reliable and objective historic data, one cannot be too sure about the rate of increase of crimes, and crimes of sexual nature in particular !!!!
The modern portrayal of the inferior status of women, in a caste-ridden hierarchical society – A real modern intellectual burden (Ref.1)
Now in this post-modern time, people will tend to think that, with the spread of education and modern means of communication, ordinary citizens are well aware of their rights and are capable of being aware of situations wherein they are subjected to exploitation. The resistance to all forms of exploitation perceived or otherwise, finds expression in police complaints and other forms of protests, which competitive journalism brings to the attention of the nation. The net result is that the consciousness of one who regularly keeps track of national affairs is bombarded with frequent news of various crimes and violence stalking society, making him/her wonder ,whether such incidents show an increasing trend. Since the modern mind conditioned by Darwin’s theory of evolution, considers that humankind is progressing towards an ideal state,(Ref.2) it will quickly form the opinion that incidents of violence and injustice would have been the same, if not more in the past. Further the modern mind rationalizes that, the figures if any available from the past of crime figures and prison records , is surely underreported or unreliable , because the people were not clear or aware about the right or wrongs happening to them, in those ‘feudalistic ‘ period under ‘patriarchal’ domination and further they didn’t have the required courage and strength to protest and even if they had protested, it was never recorded/heeded, by those in power. Such protests are believed to have found expression only in folk-songs and similar art-form of the underdogs. Even in modern times, it is alleged that ,the atrocities against Dalits and other groups refused to get registered as FIR’s in police stations or are under-reported in the media. Many are influenced by such information into believing that matters like these were very frequent and commonplace and much worse in the past.
Modern knowledge and ingenuity can only offer the solution !!!!
In any case the modern mind will cling to the belief that the present is better than the past and the future holds much promise. Society is progressing towards an ideal state defined by we humans , and we have the power and the means to shape society as we desire. (Ref.2) Thus by appropriate measures, the particular problem that we are seized of at the moment, ie sexual offences against women and children could be tackled and solved. Thus is mooted speedy trial in law courts and stringent punishment like death penalty and castration. The justification is that it will serve as a deterrent , and reduce drastically future occurrence of such crimes. This is true to some extent, but existing death penalty (or 12 years jail term) for homicides has not put a full-stop to such violent events. The victims of such violent incidents were not saved from harm by existing laws and the accused in many cases did not get the deserved punishment. In many cases , corruption at different levels had caused miscarriage of justice. The same is likely to happen to any law(statute) that may be drafted in future and its practical administration. It would serve the public and its women members very well if they are able to come out of the delusion that the law, policing and the judiciary will ensure their safety at all times and places.
No option , other than accept the full contents of the entire package !!!!
If the modern Indian considers that India is progressing as per Western norms and that in the near future it will rival the West (including US) and even China, then he/she will have to take notice of the following statistics provided by Gandhiji , in Appendix II of his seminal work ‘Hind Swaraj’. (Ref 3 & 4).These figures provide a comparison of convicted persons in three different parts of the world in 1899. The prison population per 100,000 of inhabitants in (a) Several European States put together is 100 to 230, (b) England & Wales is 190 and (c) in India is 38.The source of the above figures is acknowledged to be from Michael G.Mulhall, FRSS, Dictionary of Statistics, Routledge and Sons, 1899.(Hind Swaraj published by CUP and Orient Black Swan , carry these figures). It has been hammered into the Indian mind that England and Europe were much ‘ahead’ of India in the last half of the 19th century , in ‘rational thinking, science, technology and standard of living’. (Ref.1) The above figures also shows that India was much behind in transforming its citizens into criminals. The comparative figures of backward India vis-à-vis progressive West does not fully reveal the criminal tendencies induced by ‘ progress ‘ amongst the inhabitants of the West, since the above figures does not reflect their criminal actions in the colonies Therefore the progressive minded Indian, should never get alarmed or even protest if India, along with other indices measuring progress, overtakes other nations in corruption and criminal convictions. That is to say, increasing trend in all kinds of crimes and those against women and children in particular, should be considered as the natural outcomes of the policy of imitating the West in all areas, be it educational, economic, political and social organisation.
What the figures tell ?
If the above figures related to crime in Europe vis-a –vis India provides us with any valuable conclusion ,it is that material progress at the cost of spirituality –ie. values and morals, is counter-productive. A couple of weeks back, our PM Manmohan Singh had announced that to sustain and improve economic growth more economic reforms are needed. Therefore undoubtedly the push is for material progress. Thus it is certain that crimes in general and violent and sexual crimes against women will spiral-up in-spite of intensive policing, surveillance cameras in all eight directions per square meter and stringent laws.
Testimony from a source you can trust and identification of one major problem.
Gandhiji had written that ancient civilizations like Greece, Rome and Egypt had become extinct, whereas Indian civilization had outlived so many vicissitudes through thousands of years and one of the reasons for its survival is that it had a system of education solely with an eye to the welfare of the people, and based on self-restraint and Brahmacharya.He felt that a new civilization was passing through India. Neverthless he was confident that it is transitory and that Indian civilization will be revivified. He felt that before this new civilization enveloped us, the basis of life was self-restraint, but now it is enjoyment. And the result is that people have become powerless cowards and forsook the truth. (Ref.5) – From the Indian perspective Gandhiji is absolutely true. The Engilish meaning of the Sanskrit word ‘Vira” in the ordinary sense is courageous and manly. But this word carries a deeper meaning and had cast its powerful and soothing light on our culture. A ‘Viran’ is not a chivalrous person who may fight with a lion or rescues a princess from the clutches of the enemy after performing adventurous acts . A ‘Viran’ is a person who has all his sensory organs including the mind under his control.(Ref.6). Such a man may look ‘effiminate’ in the eyes of other cultures, but the original Indian education system strived to produce Vira’s out of men and that is what Gandhiji was writing about. Men undergoing such learning are unlikely to harm women and children. Therefore one of the main causes for the increased violence in modern society can be directly attributed to the modern system of education. Guarantee of increased indulgence in sensory pleasures translated as upward social mobility (money and status) and means to a livelihood are its objectives. (Ref.7) But even this kind of education is not in the reach of all, many are not able to afford it, and this leads to disaffection towards the society that promotes such a system. The antipathy towards society is also found in many who had this modern education, since they are also disillusioned and dissatisfied at some plane. Further modern education which keeps the machinery of modern institutions well oiled, ensures that more and more women will have to leave the safety (of what is left) of their homes and familiar environs and move far away in search of career and jobs, making them vulnerable. (Ref.9)The time has now come for women to take heed of Gandhiji’s criticism of modern education.(Ref.1) (Ref.8)
Time to take a tough decision
The new civilization ie. the modern Western civilization, has thrown self-restraint away and preaches instant gratification of all sensory pleasures. In such environments women can never enjoy security and peace. Therefore the women of this country is faced with two choices. Either chose to move along with this ‘life-corroding’ modern civilization . (Ref.3 & 4).Co-operate unquestioningly with and become a blind follower of all these modern institutions. And undergo the travails and misery thrown up by the same. Or challenge the basic tenents of this new civilization, discard it and revert back to the ancient Indian civilization. The second action requires De-schooling, if we may borrow the term from Ivan Illich. Illich himself feels that the condition of women in Europe were better in pre-modern times.(Ref.9) It will benefit women immensly in thinking that prevention of the trauma is preferable to justice for the victim.
Aim of Life as per original Indian thinking and Laws effected to realize that aim.
Human nature , particularly sexual arousal & behaviour, especially of men, has to be reconciled with any law that may be drafted to counter sexual aggression. Manusmriti, the ancient law code given by Sage Manu had considered the sexuality of humans while formulating the law of conduct. He discourages learned men (in Vedas and its auxiliaries) and men who have control over their sense organs,(yogis) in closely associating with any women other than wife. He proscribes even learned and knowledgeable men, from being alone and in seclusion with their mother or sister or daughter, citing the powerful nature of sense-organs. Even the firm resolve of a man of learning and rightful conduct, could be overcome by the power of his sensory organs, making him deviate from the path of rightful conduct, (dharma) and getting mired in sin.(adharma) (Chapter 2, verses 214 & 215).(Ref. 10 & 11) Manus Law code was in tune with the “aim of life” of the ancient Indian people. Even the content and delivery of the educative process in those times were structured, to realize this sole aim. (Ref.12) Life and living were structured around the purusharthas , the ultimate aim of life being moksha. People in general followed the path shown by learned men. In that milieu, men were also subject to restrictions, and women were comparatively safe from aggressive male behaviour. (Ref.8)
In this age, Manus code of conduct for men , is also applicable for women
Now we are in a different age, Kali Yuga where acquiring & accumulation of wealth and sensory indulgence without any consideration of dharma or rightful conduct is the order of the day, and this life is lived by both sexes . Manu’s wise counsel to men for all time to come, desirous of sound character and conduct required for fulfilling the purusharthas , will have to be followed by women desirous of safe-guarding themselves in this age ( yuga ). Since noble ancient values has been replaced by baser modern ones, they should be wary of their male companions other than husbands and the places away from home. Even at home it is risky for them to be alone with their father, brother or son or even with their grandfathers.
Does women possess a discriminating intellect ? If yes, they may try to take the non-destructive path, of self and all things connected to self.
With the change in civilizational values, women find themselves in a tight corner. Actually real values and morality and as defined by our culture act as a dampener on modern economic thinking and its fruits thereof. The roller-coaster materialistic lifestyle based on current economic thinking of progress-growth-development vis-à-vis the life of simple living, voluntary poverty, slowness (Ref.4) accompanied by peace and security- women will have to choose between these two mutually exclusive views of life and living. Collectively it is within their power and reach to halter the modern course’ since women constitute half the population. And that can happen only if women utilize their intellect discriminatively.
A precedence to the absolute effectiveness and victory of feminine qualities
Women may take their cue from our freedom struggle. The manly strategy advocated by Vivekananda to arouse our youth in the nationalistic struggle for independence ,did not produce the desired results .He exhorted the youth to go for the three B’s-Beef, Biceps and the Bhagavad-Gita. This was his response to the ‘manly’ aggression of the colonizers, albeit in the same coin. A tit-for-tat response. But it was Gandhiji’s effeminate qualities and strategies, effeminate in the eyes of other cultures and of Western-educated Indians of the time, but part of our popular culture, that immensely helped us to win our freedom without violence (other than some isolated incidents) and helped to maintain our society relatively free of violence till this date.(Ref.13) Still doubtful !!!. Satyagraha, fasting, vow of silence , prayer meetings , spinning with the charkha, non-cooperation, sawdeshi, sarvodaya vis –a-vis the misplaced manly tendency of taking up arms to fight the oppressors. Contrasted to the plain ‘manly’ violence, destructive of everything including the social fabric in its wake (eg. Violent Fight for Tamil Elam) ,Gandiji’s effeminate methods had touched all aspect of individual and social life in a soothing and constructive way. Women know thy strength!!!.
1) NCERT Text, Class 8, Subject :- Social Science, Book Title :- Our Past III (Part II) , Chapter 8, Civilising the ‘Native’ -Educating the Nation. Pages 95-107 Web page address :- http://ncert.nic.in/ncerts/textbook/textbook.htm?hess2=2-6
2) ‘What is History’ by E.H.Carr, Chapter 5, History as Progress, (p.109-132), published by Penguin Books
3) ‘ M.K.Gandhi’s Hind Swaraj, a critical edition’, annotated, translated & edited by Suresh Sharma & Tridip Suhrud, page 101, Appendix II, Testimonies by Eminent Men, published by Orient Black Swan
4) ‘Hind Swaraj’ and Other Writings –Edited by Anthony J.Parel, page 120, part of Appendices
5) The Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol.V, The Voice of Truth, Navajivan Publishing House , Ahemadabad -14, Section V: Religion and Culture, page-234, 31. Civilization and Culture
6) Introduction to Tantra Sastra, by Sir John Woodroffe, page 116, Published by Ganesh & Co, T.Nagar, Madras -600017
7) Alexander Duff(missionary) –Wikipedia-Section 2. Mission in India http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Duff_(missionary)
8) Gandhi For 21st Century- THE ROLE OF WOMEN – Edited by Anand T.Hingorani, Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (pages 2-11)
9) Ivan Illich, Gender (New York: Pantheon, 1982)
10) Manus’ Code of Law – A Critical Edition and Translation of The Manava-Dharmasastra by Patrik Olivelle,-published by Oxford University Press, Chapter 2, Verse 215, page 106, Chapter 9, Verses 10-12, page 190
11) Manusmriti -exegesis by Siddhananda-swamy in Malayalam, Published by Sri Ramakrishna Madam, Puranattukara, Trichur-680551., page 83
12) Bertrand Russell – Essay :-Education & Discipline http://www.zona-pellucida.com/essay-russel.html
13) ‘The Intimate Enemy’- Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism by Ashis Nandy, pages 52-55, published by Oxford University Press